According to Statistics Estonia, in 2010, 5,294 persons emigrated from Estonia and 2,810 persons immigrated into Estonia. Emigration increased and immigration decreased compared to the previous year.
In 2010, emigration exceeded immigration by 2,484 persons. 636 persons more emigrated and 1,074 persons less immigrated compared to the previous year. Since the restoration of independence emigration has exceeded immigration in Estonia.
60% of the immigrants were males. There were slightly more females in emigration. Slightly more than a half of the immigrants were Estonian citizens, of the emigrants almost 90%. Most immigrants came from Finland, Russia, Ukraine and United Kingdom. Those were also the countries where people emigrated to, in addition to Germany, Ireland and USA.
External migration, 2004–2010
Internal migration in 2010
Internal migration where a person changes the place of residence crossing the county, city or rural municipality borders stayed on the level of the previous year in 2010. Approximately 37,500 persons changed their place of residence crossing the county, city or rural municipality borders. Immigration exceeded emigration in internal migration the most in Tallinn (net migration was positive which means that the population of Tallinn grew due to migration by 2,353 persons), which was followed by Harku and Rae rural municipalities (the population grew due to migration by 853 and 442 persons, respectively). The biggest losers in internal migration were Pärnu and Tarty cities (more persons emigrated than immigrated).
Continually people from peripheries migrate to cities and from there to hinterland in internal migration. The biggest attraction centre is Tallinn that was able to keep the net migration positive for the second year in a row due to the immigrants from all over Estonia.
In external as well as internal migration most of the migrants are persons in their twenties and thirties.
Tallinn migration hinterland, 2010
The number of population published by Statistics Estonia is based on the 2000 Population and Housing Census data and is complemented by the annual data on registered births and deaths. Since 2000, Statistics Estonia has not used immigration and emigration data in the estimation of the population because the 2000 Population Census showed that the registration of migration was insufficient. It was mainly caused by the voluntary registration of the place of residence from the beginning of the 1990s up to 2005. Since 2006, the quality of migration data has improved. Therefore, since 2009 Statistics Estonia publishes two population numbers – one with and other without migration.
On 1 January 2010, the population gap between population with and without migration was 17,000 persons. This does not show one year’s migration, but it shows that since 2000 17,000 persons more have emigrated from Estonia than immigrated to Estonia. Statistics Estonia will publish the 2011 population with migration on 30 May.
Statistics Estonia will continue publishing the population number with and without migration until the new Population Census. After the 2011 Population Census Statistics Estonia will switch to one unified population number. We will see from the results of the 2011 Population and Housing Census which will begin on 31 December 2011 whether the last decades’ migration was the same as the registered migration which serves as a basis for calculations at present.
Migration is the change of the place of residence which in case of external migration crosses the country borders, in case of internal migration – the county, city or rural municipality borders. Net migration is the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants during a year. The positive net migration shows the predominance of immigration, the negative net migration indicates the predominance of emigration.
Source: Statistics Estonia